A review of the clinical and epidemiological aspects of Guillain-Barré syndrome in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2: An Extended Comprehensive Review

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DOI:

https://doi.org/10.20453/rnp.v86i4.5185

Palabras clave:

Guillain-Barre, SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19

Resumen

Since 2019, cases of patients with COVID-19 who developed Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) have been reported. This review explores mechanisms that explain pathophysiology, clinical features, laboratory findings, and imaging characteristics in these patients.Methodology: A bibliographic search was made of studies on the topic published in NCBI and Scielo, between December 2019 and April 2022.Results: Ninety articles were found, 53 of which were included in this article. No studies were found that explain an association between GBS and COVID19. Specific clinical manifestations found were areflexia (56.95%), hyporeflexia (19.44%), muscle weakness (65.28%), gait disturbance (12.5%), hypoesthesia (26.39%), paresthesia (30.55%), and micturition disturbance (6.94%). The CSF findings included albumin-cytological dissociation (66.67%), and an average protein level of 140.23 mg/dL (SD: 106.71). Some cases reported enhancement of the cervical leptomeningeal, brainstem and cranial nerves on magnetic resonance imaging tests. The predominant variant of GBS was acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (56.94%). The findings in the nerve conduction studies were the absence of F waves (61.54%), increased distal motor latency (80%), decreased motor amplitude (93.1%), and decreased motor conduction velocity (75%). In addition, the nerves mainly involved were the tibial (20.21%), peroneal (24.47%), median (20.21%), and ulnar (18.09%). The most frequent alteration of cranial nerves was bilateral (25%) and unilateral (13.89%) facial palsy.Conclusion: The primary GBS variant was Acute Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed albumin-cytological dissociation as the most common finding, and MRI tests showed cranial nerves enhancements. An additional differential feature was the lower commitment of the autonomous system.

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2023-12-30

Cómo citar

1.
Cordero-Campos A, Camones-Huerta J, Condori Quispe L, Guzman Carrasco S, Quispe-Villegas G, Chin-Wu K, et al. A review of the clinical and epidemiological aspects of Guillain-Barré syndrome in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2: An Extended Comprehensive Review. Rev Neuropsiquiatr [Internet]. 30 de diciembre de 2023 [citado 3 de marzo de 2024];86(4):302-17. Disponible en: https://revistas.upch.edu.pe/index.php/RNP/article/view/5185

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